From virtual classes to open-book exams, the coronavirus pandemic may have forced classroom learning online but the digital divide in the country may turn it into an “operational nightmare”, experts have warned.
Suicide by a Kerala schoolgirl allegedly over not having access to a smartphone to attend classes, stories of students in remote areas having to sit on rooftops to catch Internet, siblings competing to get their parents’ gadgets are just a few case studies of the existing “worrisome” digital divide, they said.
According to the Key Indicators of Household Social Consumption on Education in India report, based on the 2017-18 National Sample Survey, less than 15 per cent of rural Indian households have access to Internet as opposed to 42 per cent in urban households. A mere 13 per cent of people surveyed (aged above five) in rural areas — just 8.5 per cent female — could use the Internet. The poorest households cannot afford a smartphone or a computer, according to the survey.
“The implications of school closures in the country due to Covid-19 pandemic are not just about education. They are manifold. The Kerala schoolgirl’s death, pictures of a girl trying to study from a tilted rooftop to get signals, three kids in a house trying to have their share of their parents’ phone to attend the lessons, these are worrisome case studies. “An unprecedented social disaster can be avoided if more entities pitch into short-term and long-term future of the children in this digital divide,” said Rajni Palriwala, HOD, Department of Sociology, Delhi University.
Universities and schools across the country have been closed since March 16, when the Centre announced a countrywide classroom shutdown as part of a slew of measures to contain the Covid-19 outbreak. A nationwide lockdown was announced on March 24, which came into effect the next day. As per official statistics, there are over 35 crore students in the country. However, it is not clear as to how many of them have access to digital devices and Internet.
While the government has announced easing of certain restrictions, schools and colleges continue to remain closed.
“It is good that we have moved online for teaching and learning to ensure that schooling is not completely suspended. But there is a flip-side to it too. When the world has moved indoors and technology has taken over major roles, the digital have-nots are pushed to the edge. Sooner or later they will be left out of the race. “The students in rural India or the poor populace in urban centres are having extreme difficulties in using such services and we don’t have any policy in place to address that. In a way, we are only heading towards an operational nightmare,” a Delhi University professor said.
The professor is among a group of four faculty members who have written a letter to President Ram Nath Kovind against Delhi University’s decision to conduct online exams through open-book mode, saying it will push students belonging to economically weaker section and those with disabilities on the wrong side of the digital divide.
“Education is the greatest equalizer but the coronavirus crisis has come as a setback to this journey in important ways. When schools and colleges move online, students with lesser digital access get further disadvantaged, and those without any digital access are at risk of dropping out altogether. “Especially, at the school level, the digital divide poses a risk of nullifying some of India’s hard-won enrolment gains,” said Sangeeta D Gadre, a professor at Kirori Mal College.
The principal of a school in Haryana’s Mewat, who refused to be identified, said, “Like every other country, India is also witnessing an e-learning boom. Classes on Zoom, WhatsApp and Skype are becoming the norm. But the digital disparity is growing starker as more schools begin to adopt virtual tools.” “We are reading a lot about how learning is happening online, but are not able to implement it here (Mewat) for the simple reason that not everyone has access to a smartphone or Internet. There can be no shortcuts to either learning or inclusivity. Our policy-makers need to address the fact that online courses will exclude numerous students,” she said.